music composer
music composer music composition techniques cubase tutorials music essays reviews contact

choosing a good keyboard a checklist of things to look out for
touch sensitive keyboards the different types of sensitivity available
keyboard weighted keys the four different weighting options for keyboards

yamaha p95 review 88 note digital piano
casio px-330 review light weight keyboard
m-audio keystation pro-88 budget mother keyboard

Sustain Pedals
sustain pedal polarity why pedals are often not compatible with keyboards
yamaha fc4 sustain pedal a well-built yamaha pedal
yamaha fc5 review budget pedal from yamaha
m-audio sp2 review a sturdy m-audio pedal

USB Microphones
best usb microphones things to look out for when buying a usb mic
snowball-blue microphones retro looking classic mic logitech usb mic popular desktop mic samson co1u mic review studio condenser

MIDI Equipment
what is MIDI? with a list of popular control numbers
usb to midi cables for recording your ideas into your computer etc. yamaha UX16 USB/MIDI a midi/USB cable adaptor guitar midi interfaces for transforming your guitar into any midi instrument!

Sound cards
usb sound cards a list of things to look our for when buying one.

sounds cards for the Mac

covering the different types of cards & uses.

maya 44 sound card a short review of this popular sound card.


Sustain Pedal Polarity


Some common questions related to pedal polarity:-

Why does the keyboard constantly sustain all the notes that I play?

How do I stop the pedal "ringing"?

My pedal doesn't work when I push it down. How can I fix this?

three pedals




Pedal Polarity Issues

If your pedal stops sustaining the notes when you press it down, and sustains the notes when you lift it off, then you have a pedal polarity issue. You either have the wrong type of pedal for your keyboard or electric piano, or your pedal is incorrectly configured for your keyboard.

There are two types of midi sustain pedals:-

sustain pedals with polarity as "+" (positive)

sustain pedals with polarity as "-" (negative)


Manufacturing defaults with sustain pedals

Yamaha sustain pedals (such as the fc4 and fc5) are "-" (negative) polarity (normally closed position)

Roland sustain pedals are "-" (negative) polarity (normally closed position)


Casio sustain pedals are "+" polarity (positive) polarity (normally open position)

Korg sustain pedals are "+" polarity (positive) polarity (normally open position)



Solutions and answers for the pedal polarity issue:-

If you are not sure which polarity works with your keyboard, buy a dual polarity pedal, such as the spectrum dual polarity sustain pedal, with it's in-built switch that can flick the pedal between "+" and "-". The M-Audio sp-2 also has a polarity switch.

Obtain the correct polarity pedal for your keyboard (see guide above)

Some keyboards allow you to change the way that polarity is received in the keyboard, and toggle between "+" and "-". Consult the setting options in your manual to see if this may be possible.




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